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A geological survey is the systematic investigation of the geology beneath a given piece of ground to create a geological map or model. Geological surveying employs techniques from the traditional walk-over survey, studying outcrops and landforms, too intrusive methods, such as hand auguring and machine-driven boreholes, to the use of geophysical techniques and remote sensing methods, such as aerial photography and satellite imagery. Such surveys may be undertaken by the state, province, or national geological survey organizations to maintain the geological inventory and advance the knowledge of geosciences for the benefit of the nation.


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