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Coffee is one of the most important plantation crops, grown in about 80 countries across the world. It is one of the most important agricultural commodities, ranking second in international trade after crude oil. Coffee is grown in about 10.2 million hectares of land spanning over 80 countries in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world especially in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The economics of many coffee-growing countries depends heavily on the earnings from this crop. More than 100 million people in the coffee-growing areas worldwide derive their income directly or indirectly from the produce of this crop.

This book contains research emphasizing key challenges in coffee cultivation, as well as genetic diversity and breeding improved varieties. The book opens with the conceptual ideas to identify coffee-growing areas with similar agro-climatic characteristics and determine if the scope of current research is sufficiently regional in terms of its coverage. This will contribute to important future decision-making processes by coffee growers in the diverse regions of the country. Next, it highlights the input factors to the sustainable development of coffee production. The impact assessments of certain factors, such as agricultural equipment, knowledge of farmers, and the investment of capital, are essential for researching sustainable coffee development. It will provide some useful information for those working in the agricultural sector management, the agricultural extension center, and the coffee-growing households in investing, planning and development of coffee to reach high yielding, stable and more efficient in the future.

The book succeeds with the impact of organic and conventional systems of coffee farming on soil properties and culturable microbial diversity; climate change or urbanization impacts on a traditional coffee production system in East Africa over the last 80 years; and the role of increased air in the mitigation of the negative impact of warming on the coffee crop. Amongst all agronomic practices involved in coffee production, the weed management strategy/system is one of the most intensive in coffee bean production and critical to ecofriendly management ranging from two to five operations per year. The adopted weed management system in coffee plantations can have major effects on the soil environment, affecting physical, chemical and biological conditions, resulting in changes soil compressive behavior and load-bearing capacity affecting yield potential in coffee plantations. During the last twenty years, significant progress has been made in coffee biotechnology, particularly in the area of transgenic technology. This book provides a detailed account of the advances made in the genetic transformation of coffee and its potential applications. The book will serve as a valuable guide to students and practitioners working in the associated field and, moreover, may provide new concepts and starting topics for future researches.