Owing to their sensitivity to the changes in the environment amphibians are regarded as bio-indicators of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem. Their obligatory aquatic lifestyle and permeable skin have made them greatly vulnerable to waterborne environmental chemical contaminants. They are among the most important natural enemies of many agricultural pests and serve as bio-indicators of agricultural ecosystem and used as typical test animals in evaluating the effects of chemicals on the aquatic and agricultural ecosystems. Therefore, any chemical in the water/soil may have direct influence on these organisms.

Amphibian reproduction, development and metamorphosis specially involve cascades of events that are hormonal dependent. Organophosphorous chemicals although rapidly degradable, have an acute toxicity and are widely in use. Acephate being an organophosphate is a potential endocrine modulator. Atrazine a putative herbicide is an established developmental disrupter leading to the feminization of male gonads in fishes and amphibians. Synthetic pyrethroids are the most common insecticides used to control agricultural and indoor pests; cypermethrin belongs this class of compounds is an endocrine disrupter. Likewise, carbamates are fatal to insects by reversibly inactivating the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Insect growth regulators eg, methoprene and novaluron are widely in use against fruit-borers to protect economic crops. As these chemicals are routinely used in agriculture, have an easy access into the natural aquatic system in which amphibian fauna may live and breed.