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Since the foundation of civilization, human beings have been intricate in ecology. Even our earliest scriptures have highlighted environmental conservation practices and values. It is even more important than ever for society as a whole to have a clear understanding of environmental concerns and to pursue sustainable development practices. The value of environmental sciences and environmental studies cannot be questioned. The need for sustainable development is key to the future of humanity. The ongoing challenges of pollution, loss of life, solid waste management, environmental degradation, concerns such as economic productivity and national security, global warming, the deterioration of the ozone layer and the loss of biodiversity have made us aware of environmental issues. Environmental studies make us aware of the importance of protecting and sustaining our mother earth and of the destruction caused by the release of pollutants to the atmosphere. The increase in human and animal population, industries and other problems makes life difficult. Environmental science involves the study of physical, chemical and biological processes taking place on Earth, as well as the social, political and cultural processes affecting the world.

This book is intended to expose students to the relationship between humans and their geological environment: the Earth. It will focus on understanding the processes that form the earth’s surface and how these processes affect human behavior. At present, a large number of environmental issues have grown in size and complexity day by day, challenging the survival of human beings on Earth. It has been well known that environmental issues such as global warming and loss of ozone, acid rain, marine pollution and biodiversity are not just national issues but global issues and therefore need to be resolved by international efforts and collaboration. In addition to the useful recommendations in environmental studies, students should understand these topics.

Environmental studies have become important at present. This book also presents basic scientific knowledge and understanding of how our world works from an environmental point of view. Topics covered include basic principles of ecological function; biodiversity and conservation; human population growth; water resources and management; water, air and soil pollution; climate change; energy resources and sustainability.