Agriculture has promoted the increase of food supply during the past 30 years in the world. The yields have been rising remarkably, especially among developing countries. Almost half of the world population exists in Asian countries. Economic development is progressing in Asian countries such as China and India. Food systems have long been described as chains of activities from food production to consumption, including processing, packaging, distribution, and retail. These activities are influenced by many political, economic, socio-cultural, and environmental factors. Indeed, recently, food systems have been conceptualized as complex socio-ecological systems that involve cross-level and cross-scale interactions between human and natural components and major social outcomes, such as ecosystem services, social welfare, and food security.

This book not only intends to increase our understanding of the interrelations of these major global issues, but also covers different aspects such as land use, population, labor, agricultural production, production index, calorie based food supply, fertilizer, import, export, and, trade index. Mediterranean countries are undergoing dietary, and nutritional changes that have an effect on their inhabitants’ health, whereas facing huge environmental challenges. The increasing demand for water in agriculture, the capacity to maintain local food production, and the growing dependence on food imports are interconnected issues that must be addressed to ensure food security and nutrition in the Mediterranean region. Here, in this book, we present the conceptual framework and methodologies developed by the MEDINA-Study Group for rethinking food systems toward sustainable consumption and production modes.

The book further focuses on nutritional cues tie living organisms to their environment and its sustainability; sustainable food production systems and food security; conceptualizing a sustainable food system in an automated world; the contribution of schinziophytonrautanenii to sustainable diets, livelihood needs and environmental sustainability in southern Africa; sustainable nutrition to nutritional sustainability of complex food systems; and a holistic assessment of the global food system. Additionally, this book focuses on agricultural biodiversity essential for a sustainable improvement in food and nutrition security. It also delves into how the organic food system supports sustainable diets and translates these into practice. This intended scientific information will be of value to the students, scientists, researchers, and other stakeholders associated with the subject area.