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Climate change and variability are concerns of human being. Climate Change is increasingly one of the most severe national security threats which will have significant impacts on natural resources, ecosystem and biodiversity. The triple whammy problems of rapid increase in population, climate change and pressure on resources are major constraints to adequate agricultural production. Among the three, climate change is the most pressing challenges that the world faces today. At the same time, it is likely to trigger food insecurity, human migration, economic, and social depression, environmental and political crisis, thereby affecting national development. It is important to note that these global averages may hide regional variations. Projected reductions in agricultural yields due to climate change by 2050 are larger for some crops than those estimated for the past half century, but smaller than projected increases to 2050 due to rising demand and intrinsic productivity growth. Productive agriculture is essential to feed a growing population and sustain modern civilization. Climate affects agriculture, a fact well known to every farmer. Year-to-year variations in harvest are largely due to variations in temperature and precipitation that can make the difference between bountiful “bumper” crops and economic ruin.

This volume brings together state-of-the-art applied studies related to agriculture, development, and the environment. This book reviews the state of agricultural climate change mitigation globally, with a focus on identifying the feasibility, opportunities and challenges for achieving mitigation among farmers. It analyzes the global consequences to crop yields, production, and risk of hunger linking climate and socioeconomic scenarios. This volume also explores how large-scale programs for smallholder adaptation to climate change might link effectively with community-led adaptation initiatives. It identifies key success factors and barriers for considering local priorities, capacities and lessons in large-scale adaptation programs. It highlights the key roles of extension services and farmers’ organizations as mechanisms for linking between national-level and community-level adaptation, and a range of other success factors which include participative and locally driven vulnerability assessments, tailoring of adaptation technologies to local contexts, mapping local institutions and working in partnership across institutions.