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Nematophagous fungi are an important, fascinating group of soil microorganisms that can suppress the populations of plant-parasitic nematodes. They have been studied over several decades and the beautiful micrographs of these fungi trapping nematodes have marveled scientists and students alike. These remarkable fungi are also important potential biocontrol agents of nematodes diseases of plants and animals, they produce a swathe of natural chemicals and are model organisms for gene functional studies. The researcher has been working on many aspects of nematode-trapping fungi for more than 20 years. These studies have resulted in a wealth of information and it is now considered timely to bring all this information together into a book so that everyone who is interested can read about the amazing fungi. Previous studies based on traditional techniques have revealed much about nematophagous fungi. Modern techniques however, can now help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying infection of nematodes by the nematophagous fungi, and help us to understand virulent factors, the role of proteases, chitinases and small chemical molecules, and the regulation of trap formation.