Agroforestry (AF) is an ecofriendly and sustainable modern farming land use practice that maintains or increases total yields by combining food crops (annuals) with tree crops (perennials) and/or livestock on the same unit of land, either alternately or at the same time, using management practices that suit the social and cultural characteristics of the local people and the economic and eco­logical conditions of the area. Scientifically speaking, agroforestry is derived from ecology and is one of the three principal land-use sciences, the other two being agriculture and forestry. In this system, agricultural crops are intercropped with tree crops in the interspace between the trees. Under this system agricultural crops can be grown upto two years under protective irrigated condition and under rainfed farming upto four years. The crops can be grown profitably upto the above said period beyond which it is uneconomical to grow grain crops. However fodder crops, shade loving crops and shallow rooted crops can be grown economically. Over the past two decades, a number of studies have been carried out analysing the viability of agroforestry. The combined research has highlighted that agroforestry can reap substantial benefits both economically and environmentally, producing more output and proving to be more sustainable than forestry or agricultural monocultures. Agroforestry systems have already been adopted in many parts of the world. However, forest ecosystems have come to be seen as the most important component of the biosphere, and forestry has emerged as a vital applied science, craft, and technology. Forestry is an important economic segment in various industrial countries.

This volume ‘Agroforestry and Forestry’ demonstrate the role of agroforestry in providing commodity as well non-commodity benefits such as ecosystem services and forest ecological aspects and conservation and looks into new techniques for conserving the forests. This book will bridge the gaps in the knowledge about some new emerging issues on forest ecology and conservation. It covers the management of forest resources, within sites and across landscapes, to provide sustainable, desirable habitat conditions for all forest-dependent fauna while concurrently yielding economically viable, quality timber products. This volume will be an interesting and helpful resource to all those in the field of forestry working for its sustainable use and conservation.