In light of the current world economic and environmental crisis due in part to unsustainable development and poor financial planning, 21st Century engineers are faced with unprecedented challenges of developing a sustainable world in balance with the forces of nature to combat global environmental, social and economic crises. Modern, reliable and sustainable public infrastructure is critically important to the world. Our public infrastructure benefits link communities, drives our economy and preserves us healthy and safe. Given the fundamental role it plays in our daily lives, how we plan, design, build and maintain these assets is vital. Engineers play a critical role in planning, developing, building and maintaining our public infrastructure stock. Whether it is water treatment facilities, bridges and roads, public transit, utilities and the electricity grid, engineers play a part in all aspects of public infrastructure. Sustainable development requires consideration of the requirements of systems that interact in a complex way. Consideration of these systems, with regard to the provision of infrastructure for the built environment serving an increasingly urbanized world, requires engineers to embrace a range of additional skills beyond the engineering science they have traditionally relied upon to solve engineering problems.

This book aims to present the theory and practical understand of technology, innovation, and engineering management. While it encourages a broad spectrum of contribution in the engineering sciences, its core interest lies in issues concerning material modeling and response. This paper draws on field research and recommends expanding the solution space open to engineers. To facilitate this broader decision-making requirement, it provides a framework to assist engineers in arriving at a suitable solution. Engineering connects pure science to society. Unlike science, in engineering the environment in which engineers plan, design, build, manufacture, maintain and operate continually changes and so the engineer must be prepared within an ‘acceptable level of risk’ for all possibilities and outcomes.

This book will serve in several areas of Engineering, serving researchers, professionals, lecturers and students.