Animal breeding and genetics is concerned with maximizing desirable genetic traits, such as producing animals that have leaner meat. Animal geneticists have identified elements within genes that can enhance animal growth, health, and ability to utilize nutrients. These genetic advances can increase production while reducing environmental impacts. Animals and livestock contribute 40 percent of the global value of agricultural output and contribute to the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people worldwide. Advances in animal breeding, genetics, and genomics are facilitating a more efficient industry. For example, the number of cattle has decreased over the past decade, yet the total production of beef and milk has increased. This was largely possible because genetic advancements led better animal feed efficiency, which is critical to improving livestock production and lowering costs for producers. Reproduction and early development in domestic animals are biological processes in which complex genetic events like formation of the germ cells, meiosis, syngamy, zygote formation, cleavage, midblastula transition, dose compensation of sex chromosomes, genetic imprinting, and multiple cell differentiation take place. Many of these processes have great impact in veterinary reproductive medicine and are influenced by the assisted reproductive techniques applied. Transformed environmental and metabolic conditions caused by intensive livestock farming influence reproductive success by altered gene expression via epigenetic changes. In this concept molecular markers give valuable information. The increasing availability of PCR-based molecular markers allows the detailed analyses and evaluation of genetic diversity in animals and also, the detection of genes influencing economically important traits.

This volume ‘Genetics and Breeding’ discusses ways and means to improve productivity through breeding are discussed and some basic issues requiring further research pointed out. It aims to provide a glimpse into the dynamic process of genetic disparity in animals by presenting the thoughts of scientists who are engaged in the generation of new idea and techniques used for the assessment of genetic variety, often from very different perspectives. This book is a comprehensive source of knowledge on the latest advances in the field of animal genetics and breeding. The book should prove useful to students, researchers, and experts in the area of genetics and breeding, and molecular biology.