Alloy Steel – Properties and Use
- ISBN: 9781681173115
- Editor: Leroy Sidney
- Year: 2017
- Format: Hardcover
- Pages: 302
- Availability: In Stock
Alloy steel is steel that is alloyed with a variety of elements in total amounts between 1.0% and 50% by weight to improve its mechanical properties. Alloy steels are broken down into two groups: low-alloy steels and high-alloy steels. Most commonly, the phrase "alloy steel" refers to low-alloy steels. Alloy steels are made by combining carbon steel with one or several alloying elements, such as manganese, silicon, nickel, titanium, copper, chromium and aluminum. These metals are added to produce specific properties that are not found in regular carbon steel. The elements are added in varying proportions (or combinations) making the material take on different aspects such as increased hardness, increased corrosion resistance, increased strength, improved formability (ductility); the weldability can also change. Alloying elements are added to achieve certain properties in the material. As a guideline, alloying elements are added in lower percentages (less than 5%) to increase strength or hardenability, or in larger percentages (over 5%) to achieve special properties, such as corrosion resistance or extreme temperature stability. Manganese, silicon, or aluminum are added during the steelmaking process to remove dissolved oxygen, sulfur and phosphorus from the melt. Manganese, silicon, nickel, and copper are added to increase strength by forming solid solutions in ferrite. Chromium, vanadium, molybdenum, and tungsten increase strength by forming second-phase carbides. Nickel and copper improve corrosion resistance in small quantities.
Molybdenum helps to resist embrittlement. Zirconium, cerium, and calcium increase toughness by controlling the shape of inclusions. Sulfur, in the form of manganese sulfide, lead, bismuth, selenium, and tellurium, increases machinability. Alloying elements also have an effect on the eutectoid temperature of the steel. This book entitled Alloy Steel are devoted to new approaches and usages of stainless steels, the influence of the environments on the behavior of certain classes of steels, new structural concepts to understand some fatigue processes, new insight on strengthening mechanisms, and toughness in micro alloyed steels.