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Microwave systems, such as radars, and radio and other communication devices are made of many electronic parts called “circuits” or “components.” These are designed and constructed to manipulate electromagnetic phenomena into carrying out different microwave signal processing functions such as generating, modulating, controlling, and amplifying signals. They are also used in frequency translation (conversion). The construction of such electronic circuits is usually quite different from those used in low frequency equipments, such as television sets or AM/FM radio. In the early development of microwave circuits and systems (during and just after World War II) heavy and bulky microwave circuits in the form of voluminous, hollow metallic pipes and tubes were used. These large, three-dimensional waveguides are still in use today for certain high-power applications. Microwave engineering pertains to the study and design of microwave circuits, components, and systems. Fundamental principles are applied to analysis, design and measurement techniques in this field. The short wavelengths involved distinguish this discipline from Electronic engineering. This is because there are different interactions with circuits, transmissions and propagation characteristics at microwave frequencies. Some theories and devices that pertain to this field are antennas, radar, transmission lines, space based systems (remote sensing), measurements, microwave radiation hazards and safety measures. The book, Advanced Microwave Circuits and Systems, deals with the design and development of active and passive microwave components, integrated circuits and systems. The book accomplishes with chapters considering solicitation of microwaves in measurement and sensing systems.