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Weather instruments are crucially important to several industries. This is because weather is a shaping factor in various industrial sectors, from agriculture to shipping. Instruments that measure weather variables have been invented and tested since the time of Leonardo de Vinci. The earliest instruments were crude by today’s standards and required manual observation and notation of the weather variable of interest. Agriculture is profoundly dependent on weather instruments, as assists farmers when to plant and what safety measures to take. In recent years, for the most profit, farmers try to sow their crops at the earliest opportunity, but if done too early the crops could fail. Weather sensors are of vital importance to the shipping industry because they can be used to forecast hurricanes and other storms. Temperature and air pressure can affect a plane behavior in the air as it modifies the amount of lift. Radar is used to track storms that can ground aircraft or making landing impossible. Wind speed and direction are considered on account of their role in convective energy exchange and the movement of spores, pollen, odors, and chemicals as they drift in the atmosphere. Precipitation amount, intensity, frequency, and form are significant in shaping the availability of water for crops and play an important role in soil erosion by water and in water quality issues.

This volume ‘Meteorological Measurements and Instrumentation’ covers the fundamental scientific ideology essential high quality instrumentation intended for environmental measurements. It discusses an assortment of in situ instrumentations used in practical environmental monitoring and, specifically, those used in surface based measurement systems. It demonstrates the technologies in use including many examples of real atmospheric measurements in typical and unusual circumstances, with a discussion of the spatial lattice model applied for meteorological visualization and analysis, spatial-temporal patterns and controls of evapotranspiration principles necessary for reliable measurements, multi-model ensemble for seasonal precipitation forecast over Israel, frequency analysis of critical meteorological conditions in a changing climate, instrumentation and measurement of ground-level ultraviolet irradiance and spectral composition, and data processing principles necessary for reliable measurements.