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Stochastic calculus is a branch of mathematics that operates on stochastic processes. It allows a consistent theory of integration to be defined for integrals of stochastic processes with respect to stochastic processes. It is used to model systems that behave randomly. The best-known stochastic process to which stochastic calculus is applied is the Wiener process, the Wiener process has been widely applied in financial mathematics and economics to model the evolution in time of stock prices and bond interest rates.

The Malliavin calculus extends the calculus of variations from functions to stochastic processes. The Malliavin calculus is also called the stochastic calculus of variations. In particular, it allows the computation of derivatives of random variables. Malliavin’s ideas led to a proof that Hörmander’s condition implies the existence and smoothness of a density for the solution of a stochastic differential equation; Hörmander’s original proof was based on the theory of partial differential equations. The calculus has been applied to stochastic partial differential equations as well. The calculus allows integration by parts with random variables; this operation is used in mathematical finance to compute the sensitivities of financial derivatives. The calculus has applications in, for example, stochastic filtering. This book emphasizes on differential stochastic equations and Malliavin calculus.