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It was once believed that babies lacked the capability to think or create complex ideas and persisted without cognition until they know the language. It is now recognized that babies are responsive to their surroundings and attentive in consideration from the time they are born. The human brain undergoes important changes in each structural design and practical organization across the era. Advances in Neuroimaging techniques over the past decade has allowed us to trace these changes safely within the human in vivo.

This book is intended to cover the state of the art literature on the neurobiology of cognitive development, highlighting specifically on cognitive task-dependent changes observed in brain physiology and anatomy across childhood and adolescence. This book provides the key research conducted at the local or global scale in the field of applied cognitive development, particularly working memory and executive functioning from early childhood to adolescence. Intelligence assessment has been a primary tool used within school psychology to assess a student’s level of cognitive abilities in determining the need for special education services and predominantly as a tool to assist with the identification of specific learning disabilities. This highlights the effects of anxiety and depression on working memory in children. Similarly, it becomes important to highlight the difference between learning disabilities and school difficulties arising from other causes.

Such may be an inadequate school management, the lack of well-educated and effective teachers in schools, the large number of students in classes, teaching in another language than the students’ mother tongue, and unfortunately, sometimes, negative behaviors among some teachers to children with difficulties, and their integration into mainstream schools as a result of teachers’ tradition and culture. While financial condition everywhere the globe is additional typical and extreme in rural contexts, interventions to enhance psychological feature in low socioeconomic standing (SES) kids area unit for the foremost half supported studies conducted in urban populations. This book investigates how poverty and rural or urban settings affect child cognitive performance. The book also aims to offer a more in-depth understanding of John Stuart Mill’s contribution to the cognitive development of sociology. That is, mental processes, character traits, and overall personality traits determine what transpires amongst people in the society and they should be the focal point for understanding the reason why people hold certain beliefs or subscribe to various cultures. The information contained in this book will be of value to the students, scientists, researchers, and other stakeholders associated with the subject area.